Every year, the Internal Revenue Service announces cost-of-living adjustments that affect contribution limits for retirement plans and various tax deduction, exclusion, exemption, and threshold amounts. Here are a few of the key adjustments for 2020.
Employer retirement plans
- Employees who participate in 401(k), 403(b), and most 457 plans can defer up to $19,500 in compensation in 2020 (up from $19,000 in 2019); employees age 50 and older can defer up to an additional $6,500 in 2020 (up from $6,000 in 2019).
- Employees participating in a SIMPLE retirement plan can defer up to $13,500 in 2020 (up from $13,000 in 2019), and employees age 50 and older can defer up to an additional $3,000 in 2020 (the same as in 2019).
The combined annual limit on contributions to traditional and Roth IRAs is $6,000 in 2020 (the same as in 2019), with individuals age 50 and older able to contribute an additional $1,000. For individuals who are covered by a workplace retirement plan, the deduction for contributions to a traditional IRA phases out for the following modified adjusted gross income (MAGI) ranges:
|Single/head of household (HOH)||$64,000 -$74,000||$65,000 -$75,000|
|Married filing jointly (MFJ)||$103,000 -$123,000||$104,000 -$124,000|
|Married filing separately||$0 – $10,000||$0 – $10,000|
Note: The 2020 phaseout range is $196,000 – $206,000 (up from $193,000 – $203,000 in 2019) when the individual making the IRA contribution is not covered by a workplace retirement plan but is filing jointly with a spouse who is covered.
The modified adjusted gross income phaseout ranges for individuals to make contributions to a Roth IRA are:
|Single/HOH||$122,000 -$137,000||$124,000 -$139,000|
|MFJ||$193,000 -$203,000||$196,000 -$206,000|
|MFS||$0 – $10,000||$0 – $10,000|
Estate and gift tax
- The annual gift tax exclusion for 2020 is $15,000, the same as in 2019.
- The gift and estate tax basic exclusion amount for 2020 is $11,580,000, up from $11,400,000 in 2019.
Under the kiddie tax rules, unearned income above $2,200 in 2020 (the same as in 2019) is taxed using the trust and estate income tax brackets. The kiddie tax rules apply to: (1) those under age 18, (2) those age 18 whose earned income doesn’t exceed one-half of their support, and (3) those ages 19 to 23 who are full-time students and whose earned income doesn’t exceed one-half of their support.
Note: The additional standard deduction amount for the blind or aged (age 65 or older) in 2020 is $1,650 (the same as in 2019) for single/HOH or $1,300 (the same as in 2019) for all other filing statuses. Special rules apply if you can be claimed as a dependent by another taxpayer.
Alternative minimum tax (AMT)
|Maximum AMT exemption amount|
|Exemption phaseout threshold|
|26% rate on AMTI* up to this amount, 28% rate on AMTI above this amount|
|*Alternative minimum taxable income|
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